La guía del inversor responsable para el cambio climático

NUEVA YORK – En todo el mundo, los inversores institucionales -que incluyen fondos de pensión, compañías de seguros, fundaciones filantrópicas y universidades- confrontan el interrogante de si desinvertir o no en compañías de petróleo, gas y carbón. La razón, por supuesto, es el cambio climático: a menos que se recorte marcadamente el consumo de combustibles fósiles -y se lo erradique por completo alrededor del año 2070, a favor de una energía que no emita carbono como la energía solar-, el mundo sufrirá riesgos inaceptables por culpa del calentamiento global inducido por el hombre. ¿Cómo deberían comportarse los inversores responsables frente a estos riesgos sin precedentes?

La desinversión, en rigor de verdad, es una respuesta, por varios motivos. Uno es simplemente el interés personal: la industria de combustibles fósiles será una mala inversión en un mundo que está virando decisivamente hacia las energías renovables. (Claro que existirán excepciones; por ejemplo, el desarrollo de combustibles fósiles en los países más pobres continuará, incluso después de que se exijan recortes en los países ricos, para promover la reducción de la pobreza).

Es más, la desinversión ayudaría a acelerar ese cambio, privando a la industria de capital de inversión -o, por lo menos, aumentando el costo del capital para las empresas que lleven a cabo un desarrollo y una exploración irresponsables de petróleo, gas y carbón, a pesar de la necesidad urgente de implementar un recorte-. Si bien ningún inversor institucional por sí solo puede marcar una diferencia significativa, cientos de grandes inversores con billones de dólares de activos ciertamente pueden hacerlo.

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