Industrial chimneys.

A insensatez dos combustíveis fósseis

BERLIM – Para evitar uma catástrofe climática, teremos de renunciar à combustão de quase 90% das reservas comprovadas de carvão, a mais de um terço do petróleo e a metade das reservas de gás natural. No entanto, em vez de aplicarem políticas com vista à concretização deste objectivo, os governos continuam a subsidiar o sector dos combustíveis fósseis e a utilizar os escassos recursos públicos para procurar novas reservas. Esta situação tem de mudar o quanto antes.

A fim de contribuir para esta mudança, a Fundação Heinrich Böll e a ONG Amigos da Terra Internacional compilaram dados-chave sobre a indústria do carvão no Atlas do Carvão recentemente publicado. Os números são impressionantes.

De acordo com o Fundo Monetário Internacional, no corrente ano, os subsídios após impostos para o carvão (incluindo danos ambientais) atingiram 3,9% do PIB mundial. Estima-se que os países do G20 gastem mais de 88 mil milhões de dólares por ano em subsídios para a descoberta de novas reservas de combustíveis fósseis. Além disso, num relatório recente o Natural Resources Defense Council, o Oil Change International e o World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) revelaram que entre 2007 e 2014 os governos investiram mais de 73 mil milhões de dólares (ou seja, mais de 9 mil milhões de dólares por ano) de fundos públicos em projectos associados ao carvão. No topo da lista figuravam o Japão (20 mil milhões de dólares), a China (aproximadamente 15 mil milhões de dólares), a Coreia do Sul (7 mil milhões de dólares) e a Alemanha (6,8 mil milhões de dólares).

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