Industrial chimneys.

La folie des combustibles fossiles

BERLIN – Si l’humanité veut éviter une catastrophe climatique, elle doit renoncer à brûler près de 90 pour cent des réserves connues de charbon, un tiers du pétrole et la moitié des réserves de gaz naturel. Mais au lieu de mettre en œuvre une politique permettant d’atteindre cet objectif, les gouvernements continuent non seulement à subventionner le secteur des combustibles fossiles, mais également à consacrer des ressources publiques limitées pour découvrir de nouvelles réserves. Cela doit changer – et rapidement.

Pour contribuer à ce changement, la fondation Heinrich Böll et les Amis de la Terre International ont compilé des données sur l’industrie du charbon dans l’Atlas du Charbon 2015. Les chiffres sont accablants.

Selon le Fonds monétaire international, les subventions après impôt pour le charbon (y compris les dommages environnementaux) ont atteint 3,9 pour cent du PIB mondial cette année. On estime que les gouvernements du G20 dépenseront 88 milliards de dollars par an en subventions pour la découverte de nouveaux gisements de combustibles fossiles. Et un récent rapport conjoint du National Resources Defense Council (NRDC), de Oil Change International et du WWF révèle qu’entre 2007 et 2014, les gouvernements ont investi plus de 73 milliards de dollars – ou plus de 9 milliards par an – de fonds publics dans des projets liés au charbon. En tête de liste figurent le Japon (20 milliards de dollars), la Chine (environ 15 milliards), la Corée du Sud (7 milliards) et l’Allemagne (6,8 milliards).

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