Oil companies and climate change Pacific Press/Getty Images

Desenmascarar a los negadores del cambio climático

STANFORD – A veinticinco años de la adopción de la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático el 9 de mayo de 1992, el mundo todavía tiene pendiente  de implementar un tratado que aborde de manera efectiva el calentamiento global. Ahora, tras el abandono del Presidente estadounidense Donald Trump del acuerdo climático de París, es hora de investigar más en detalle las fuerzas que le hacen lastre.

A lo largo de los años 90, el Instituto Estadounidense del Petróleo (API, por sus siglas en inglés), el mayor grupo de presión y asociación en los ámbitos del petróleo y el gas de Estados Unidos, se basó reiteradamente en modelos económicos creados por dos economistas, Paul Bernstein y W. David Montgomery, para argumentar que seguir políticas que protegieran el clima sería devastadoramente costoso. El API logró la postergación de las medidas para hacer frente al cambio climático, usando proyecciones de Bernstein y Montgomery para afirmar que la pérdida de empleos y los costes económicos serían superiores a los beneficios ambientales.

Estos argumentos se usaron en 1991 para atacar la idea de la realización de controles de dióxido de carbono; en 1993, contra el impuesto BTU propuesto por el gobierno de Clinton (un recargo energético que habría cobrado a las fuentes según su contenido de carbono y capacidad calorífica); en 1996, contra los objetivos de la Conferencia de la ONU de las Partes en Ginebra (COP2); en 1997, contra los objetivos de la Conferencia de la ONU de las Partes en Kyoto (COP3); y en 1998, contra la implementación del Protocolo de Kyoto. El plan de presión del API era repetitivo, ya que funcionaba.

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