Oil companies and climate change Pacific Press/Getty Images

Membuka Kedok Orang-orang yang Tidak Mempercayai Perubahan Iklim

STANFORD – Dua puluh lima tahun setelah diberlakukannya Konvensi Kerangka Kerja PBB mengenai Perubahan Iklim pada tanggal 9 Mei 1992, negara-negara di dunia masih belum dapat menerapkan sebuah perjanjian yang secara efektif mengatasi pemanasan global. Sekarang, setelah Presiden Donald Trump menarik Amerika keluar dari perjanjian Perubahan Iklim yang disepakati di Paris, tiba saatnya untuk menyelidiki lebih dalam pengaruh-pengaruh yang menyebabkan tertundanya upaya untuk mengatasi perubahan iklim.  

Selama tahun 1990-an, American Petroleum Institute (API) – yang merupakan asosiasi dan kelompok lobi perusahaan minyak dan gas terbesar di Amerika – telah berulang kali menggunakan model ekonomi yang dibuat oleh dua orang ekonom, yaitu Paul Bernstein dan W. David Montgomery, untuk memberikan argumentasi bahwa kebijakan yang bertujuan untuk mengatasi perubahan iklim akan memerlukan biaya yang sangat mahal. API telah berhasil melakukan lobi untuk menunda upaya yang menjadi solusi terhadap perubahan iklim, dengan menggunakan proyeksi Bernstein dan Montgomery, yang menyatakan bahwa dampak kebijakan tersebut akan mengakibatkan hilangnya lapangan pekerjaan dan dampak ekonomi yang lebih besar dibandingkan manfaat lingkungan hidup yang akan dicapai.

Argumen ini digunakan pada tahun 1991 untuk menentang ide pengaturan karbon diokdisa; pada tahun 1993 untuk menentang pajak BTU (pajak terhadap sumber energi berdasarkan panas dan karbon yang dihasilkan sumber energi tersebut) yang diusulkan oleh pemerintahan Presiden Clinton; pada tahun 1996 untuk menentang tujuan Konferensi Para Pihak PBB di Jenewa (COP2); pada tahun 1997 untuk menentang tujuan Konferensi Para Pihak PBB di Kyoto (COP3); dan pada tahun 1998 untuk menentang implementasi Protokol Kyoto. API menggunakan rencana tersebut berulang kali. Dan mereka selalu mencapai keberhasilan dalam setiap upaya tersebut.    

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