Movilizemos Reservas para el Crecimiento y la Estabilidad Globales

Si las guerras, como dice el famoso comentario de Clemenceau, son demasiado importantes para dejarlas en manos de los generales, el desarrollo es demasiado importante para dejarlo en manos de los ministros de finanzas, los banqueros centrales, el FMI y el Banco Mundial. La reunión del mes entrante acerca del ``Financiamiento para el Desarrollo'' que tendrá lugar en Monterrey, México, es una oportunidad perfecta para que otros jugadores interesados, incluyendo a presidentes y primeros ministros, declaren sus intereses.

La comunidad internacional aceptó una serie de modestos objetivos para el desarrollo global: reducir la pobreza y el analfabetismo, y mejorar la salud. Pero esto requiere de un sustancial incremento en la asistencia en un tiempo en el que los despreciables niveles de ayuda proveídos por los países ricos continúan cayendo. Estados Unidos (EU), el país más rico del mundo, es el más tacaño. Mientras los países (económicamente) avanzados del mundo mantengan esta actitud, es necesario probar esquemas innovativos de financiamiento del desarrollo económico, y también los bienes públicos globales en general.

Una idea que ha atraído atención es una nueva forma de dinero global similar a los Derechos Especiales de Giro (SDR) del FMI. Los SDR son una especie de dinero global, emitido por el FMI, que los países acordaron aceptar y cambiar por dólares u otras monedas firmes. La idea base es simple: todos los años los países en todo el mundo apartan reservas como seguro en contra de contingencias tales como un abrupto cambio en el sentir de los acreedores extranjeros o un colapso de los precios de exportación. Como resultado, parte del ingreso global está inmóvil en lugar de financiar inversiones que los países pobres necesitan.

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