Mobilisierung der Reserven für weltweites Wachstum und Stabilität

Wenn Kriege, wie Clemenceau einmal meinte, zu wichtig sind, um sie den Generälen zu überlassen, dann ist Entwicklung zu wichtig, um sie Finanzministern, Zentralbankiers, dem IWF und der Weltbank zu überlassen. Die im März in Monterrey/Mexiko stattfindende Konferenz über Entwicklungsfinanzierung bietet auch anderen Beteiligten, einschließlich der Präsidenten und Premierminister, eine hervorragende Gelegenheit, ihre Interessen wahrzunehmen.

Die internationale Gemeinschaft hat sich auf eine Reihe bescheidener Ziele für die globale Entwicklung, wie der Bekämpfung der Armut und des Analphabetentums, sowie der Verbesserung der Gesundheitssysteme geeinigt. Dazu bedarf es allerdings einer substanziellen Erhöhung der Zuwendungen zu einem Zeitpunkt, da die ohnehin schon dürftigen Hilfsleistungen der reichen Länder noch weiter sinken. Am knausrigsten sind die USA, das reichste Land der Welt. Solange sich an der Haltung der (wirtschaftlich) bestentwickelten Länder nichts ändert, müssen die Ansätze der Entwicklungsfinanzierung - und der Finanzierung globaler öffentlicher Güter im Allgemeinen - genau überprüft werden.

Eine interessante Idee in dieser Hinsicht ist ein, den Sonderziehungsrechten (SZR) des IWF ähnliches globales Zahlungsmittel. SZR sind ein vom IWF zugeteiltes internationales Reservemedium, das Länder erhalten und das gegen Dollars oder andere harte Währungen eingetauscht werden kann. Die Idee dahinter ist recht einfach: Länder auf der ganzen Welt bilden jedes Jahr finanzielle Reserven, um gegen Eventualitäten wie abrupt nachlassendes Vertrauen der Kreditgeber oder einen Zusammenbruch der Exportpreise gewappnet zu sein. Aus diesem Grund liegt ein gewisser Anteil des globalen Einkommens herum, anstatt damit die von ärmeren Ländern benötigten Investitionen zu finanzieren.

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