El engaño de las armas nucleares

GINEBRA – Pensando en la reunión de delegados de 189 países en preparación de la próxima Conferencia de Examen del Tratado de No Proliferación Nuclear (TNP) del año 2015, me acuerdo de la primera vez que asistí a una reunión informativa sobre la estrategia nuclear de los Estados Unidos. Eran principios de la década de 1980; yo era un joven ministro del gobierno australiano y recibí el informe en lo más recóndito del Pentágono, de boca de un hombre de guardapolvo blanco, provisto de un puntero y extraordinariamente parecido a Woody Allen.

Apenas tuvo palabras para los incontables seres humanos reales que en caso de estallar una guerra nuclear morirían vaporizados, pulverizados, calcinados, quemados o víctimas de la radiación. Habló en un lenguaje frío y técnico, donde todo se reducía a cargas útiles, posibilidad de supervivencia, ataques contrafuerza y contravalor. Fue, sin embargo, una explicación impresionante de la lógica de la disuasión nuclear y de la mecánica de la destrucción mutua asegurada, que tanto Estados Unidos como la Unión Soviética aplicaron durante toda la Guerra Fría.

Han pasado treinta años y no es probable que los gobiernos de Moscú y Washington vayan a lanzarse mutuas andanadas de misiles nucleares (si es que alguna vez existió tal posibilidad). Tampoco es concebible el inicio deliberado de una guerra nuclear entre China y Estados Unidos.

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