Man holding grapes.

Nahrung für eine fehlerhafte Gesellschaft

STANFORD/BERKELEY – Fast die gesamte wissenschaftliche Gemeinschaft ist sich darin einig, dass es harte Arbeit kosten wird, eine Weltbevölkerung, die bis Mitte des Jahrhunderts um 2,5 Milliarden wachsen soll, ausreichend mit Nahrungsmitteln zu versorgen. In der Tat hat noch nicht einmal die momentane Bevölkerung von 7,3 Milliarden genug zu essen: Fast 800 Millionen Menschen hungern, und weitere zwei Milliarden bekommen nicht genug Spurenelemente. Aber darüber, wie man das Problem der sicheren Nahrungsversorgung angehen soll, gibt es keinen Konsens.

Die wissenschaftliche Gemeinschaft ist in zwei große Lager aufgeteilt: „Tinker with agricultural details“ (TAD, „an den landwirtschaftlichen Details herumbasteln“) und „mend societal fundamentals“ (MSF, die Grundlagen der Gesellschaft reparieren). Der erste Ansatz wird zwar von einer klaren Mehrheit unterstützt, aber der zweite ist überzeugender.

Sicherlich hat das TAD-Lager viele wichtige Probleme der momentanen Lebensmittelproduktion und -verteilung aufgedeckt, und ihre Lösung könnte tatsächlich die Nahrungsmittelversorgung verbessern. Durch die Entwicklung besserer Pflanzensorten könnten die Erträge gesteigert werden. Wasser, Dünger und Pestizide müssen effizienter genutzt werden. Durch den Schutz tropischer Wälder und anderer naturnaher Ökosysteme würden wichtige natürliche Dienste bewahrt, darunter vor allem die Fruchtbarkeit des Bodens, die Bestäubung, die Schädlingskontrolle und der klimatische Ausgleich. Der Trend in Richtung steigenden Fleischkonsums muss umgekehrt werden. Durch strengere Regulierung der Fischerei und der Meeresverschmutzung könnte das Angebot an Proteinen aus dem Meer gesichert werden, das für viele Menschen wichtig ist. Bei der Produktion und Verteilung von Lebensmitteln muss die Verschwendung verringert werden. Und die Menschen sollten dazu erzogen werden, nachhaltigere und nahrhaftere Lebensmittel zu sich zu nehmen.

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