Man holding grapes.

养活有缺陷的社会

斯坦福/伯克利—几乎所有的科学界人士都同意,确保数量日益增加的人类的充足粮食供应需要很大的努力。到本世纪中叶,全球人口预计将增加25亿。事实上,我们连为当今73亿人口提供足够的粮食都没有做到:近8亿人正在挨饿或吃不饱,另有好几亿人得不到充分的微量元素。但在如何解决粮食安全的问题上并不存在这样的共识。

科学界分成了两个主要阵营:“在农业细节上小修小补”(TAD)和“改变社会基本面”(MSF)。支持前者的显然占大多数,但后者更有说服力。

诚然,TAD阵营找到了当前粮食生产和分配体系的诸多重要问题,解决这些问题确实能够改善粮食安全。培育更好的农作物可以提高产量。水、肥料和杀虫剂应该得到更有效的使用。保护热带雨林和其他相对自然的生态系统能够保护关键性生态系统功能,特别是土地肥沃性、授粉、害虫防治和气候改善。肉类消费日增的趋势应该扭转。更严格地监管捕捞和海洋污染能够维持对许多人来说必不可少的海洋蛋白质。粮食生产和分配中的浪费情况应该尽量减少。人们还应该接受选择更加可持续和更有营养的食物的教育。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/mKjMt5W/zh;
  1. Chris J Ratcliffe/Getty Images

    The Brexit Surrender

    European Union leaders meeting in Brussels have given the go-ahead to talks with Britain on post-Brexit trade relations. But, as European Council President Donald Tusk has said, the most difficult challenge – forging a workable deal that secures broad political support on both sides – still lies ahead.

  2. The Great US Tax Debate

    ROBERT J. BARRO vs. JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS on the impact of the GOP tax  overhaul.


    • Congressional Republicans are finalizing a tax-reform package that will reshape the business environment by lowering the corporate-tax rate and overhauling deductions. 

    • But will the plan's far-reaching changes provide the boost to investment and growth that its backers promise?


    ROBERT J. BARRO | How US Corporate Tax Reform Will Boost Growth

    JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS | Robert Barro's Tax Reform Advocacy: A Response

  3. Murdoch's Last Stand?

    Rupert Murdoch’s sale of 21st Century Fox’s entertainment assets to Disney for $66 billion may mark the end of the media mogul’s career, which will long be remembered for its corrosive effect on democratic discourse on both sides of the Atlantic. 

    From enabling the rise of Donald Trump to hacking the telephone of a murdered British schoolgirl, Murdoch’s media empire has staked its success on stoking populist rage.

  4. Bank of England Leon Neal/Getty Images

    The Dangerous Delusion of Price Stability

    Since the hyperinflation of the 1970s, which central banks were right to combat by whatever means necessary, maintaining positive but low inflation has become a monetary-policy obsession. But, because the world economy has changed dramatically since then, central bankers have started to miss the monetary-policy forest for the trees.

  5. Harvard’s Jeffrey Frankel Measures the GOP’s Tax Plan

    Jeffrey Frankel, a professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and a former member of President Bill Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisers, outlines the five criteria he uses to judge the efficacy of tax reform efforts. And in his view, the US Republicans’ most recent offering fails miserably.

  6. A box containing viles of human embryonic Stem Cell cultures Sandy Huffaker/Getty Images

    The Holy Grail of Genetic Engineering

    CRISPR-Cas – a gene-editing technique that is far more precise and efficient than any that has come before it – is poised to change the world. But ensuring that those changes are positive – helping to fight tumors and mosquito-borne illnesses, for example – will require scientists to apply the utmost caution.

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now