Man holding grapes.

养活有缺陷的社会

斯坦福/伯克利—几乎所有的科学界人士都同意,确保数量日益增加的人类的充足粮食供应需要很大的努力。到本世纪中叶,全球人口预计将增加25亿。事实上,我们连为当今73亿人口提供足够的粮食都没有做到:近8亿人正在挨饿或吃不饱,另有好几亿人得不到充分的微量元素。但在如何解决粮食安全的问题上并不存在这样的共识。

科学界分成了两个主要阵营:“在农业细节上小修小补”(TAD)和“改变社会基本面”(MSF)。支持前者的显然占大多数,但后者更有说服力。

诚然,TAD阵营找到了当前粮食生产和分配体系的诸多重要问题,解决这些问题确实能够改善粮食安全。培育更好的农作物可以提高产量。水、肥料和杀虫剂应该得到更有效的使用。保护热带雨林和其他相对自然的生态系统能够保护关键性生态系统功能,特别是土地肥沃性、授粉、害虫防治和气候改善。肉类消费日增的趋势应该扭转。更严格地监管捕捞和海洋污染能够维持对许多人来说必不可少的海洋蛋白质。粮食生产和分配中的浪费情况应该尽量减少。人们还应该接受选择更加可持续和更有营养的食物的教育。

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