Nahrungsmittel oder Kraftstoff?

Als der Generalsekretär der Vereinten Nationen, Ban Ki-moon, vor kurzem die Antarktis besuchte, war er von dem schmelzenden Eis beeindruckt, das er dort sah. Dann reiste er nach Brasilien, wo er von der Nutzung von Biokraftstoff beeindruckt war, mit dem ein Viertel des Kraftfahrzeugverkehrs des Landes betrieben wird. Aus Raps gepresstes Öl kann als Diesel genutzt werden, und aus Mais und Zuckerrüben kann Äthanol gewonnen werden, um Benzin zu ersetzen.

Die UNO teilt mit vielen Ländern die Ansicht, dass Biokraftstoff eine Option zur Bekämpfung des Klimawandels darstellt. Die Vereinigten Staaten subventionieren die Produktion von Äthanol aus Mais großzügig, wobei der Ertrag dort gegenwärtig um 12 % pro Jahr steigt und weltweit um fast 10 %. Die EU-Länder haben die Produktion von Biokraftstoff 2006 mit € 3,7 Milliarden subventioniert und beabsichtigen, 8 % ihres Motorenkraftstoffs bis 2015 und 20 % bis 2020 damit abzudecken. Das Protokoll von Kyoto gestattet es den Ländern, ihre angestrebte Reduktion des CO2-Ausstoßes durch den Austausch fossiler Brennstoffe durch Biokraftstoffe zu erreichen.

Doch stellt das Verbrennen von Nahrungsmitteln, anstatt sie zu essen, wirklich eine kluge und ethisch annehmbare Strategie dar? Wenn wir zulassen, dass Nahrungsmittel zur Herstellung von Biokraftstoffen verwendet werden, werden dadurch die Lebensmittelpreise an den Ölpreis gekoppelt, wie der Präsident des deutschen Bauernverbands freudig bekanntgab. Tatsächlich steigen derzeit in Europa die Lebensmittelpreise, weil immer mehr Ackerland für Biokraftstoffe anstatt für die Nahrungsmittelproduktion verwendet wird.

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