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BRUXELLES – Cosa dovrebbe fare il G-20 per prepararci ad affrontare la crisi alimentare oggi ed in futuro? Il Presidente della Banca mondiale ha annunciato recentemente nove misure che il G-20 dovrebbe adottare sotto la presidenza francese che vanno dal miglioramento dell’informazione sulle provviste di grano allo sviluppo di metodi per la previsione metereologica, dal rafforzamento delle reti di sicurezza sociale per i poveri al sostegno agli agricoltori più piccoli per aiutarli a trarre vantaggio dalle gare d’appalto indette dai committenti umanitari tra cui il World Food Program.

Pur essendo ben recepite, queste misure sono in grado di contrastare solo i sintomi delle debolezze dei sistemi alimentari globali, senza intaccare le cause più profonde. Possono mitigare le conseguenze dei prezzi più elevati, ma non sono adatte ad evitare la ricomparsa degli shock che potrebbero essere in realtà eliminati se il G-20 si dimostrasse in grado di implementare in modo concreto otto aspetti prioritari.

Il G-20 dovrebbe, innanzitutto, adoperarsi per favorire la capacità di autosostentamento dei paesi. Sin dai primi anni ’90 il debito alimentare di numerosi paesi poveri è aumentato di cinque o sei volte non solo a causa della crescita della popolazione, ma anche a causa della troppa focalizzazione su un’agricoltura basata sulle esportazioni. La mancanza di investimenti nell’agricoltura quale mezzo di sostentamento delle comunità locali rende questi paesi vulnerabili agli shock dei prezzi a livello internazionale, così come alla volatilità dei tassi di cambio.

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