Women cycling in Odense Tim Graham/Getty Images

De análisis económico a crecimiento inclusivo

WASHINGTON, DC – La mayoría de las economías están en busca de una receta para un crecimiento económico inclusivo, en la que se implementen tasas altas de inversión, innovación rápida y fuertes alzas del PIB junto con medidas para reducir la desigualdad de ingresos. Los conservadores insisten en que el crecimiento requiere de impuestos bajos y de incentivos como mercados laborales flexibles para estimular la iniciativa empresarial. Pero para reducir la desigualdad hacen falta niveles más altos de gasto gubernamental y tributación (excepto cuando el gobierno busca un gasto deficitario para estimular una economía deprimida).

Se suele invocar el modelo económico escandinavo para achicar esta brecha. El sistema de "flexiguridad" danés, en particular, históricamente ha ofrecido un desempeño económico sólido junto con una desigualdad baja. Economistas prominentes como Philippe Aghion han publicado excelentes análisis de cómo este modelo podría equilibrar crecimiento, igualdad y satisfacción general de los ciudadanos en otras partes del mundo.

Estos economistas sostienen que los mercados laborales con pocas restricciones en cuanto a contratación y despido, impuestos bajos a la iniciativa empresarial e incentivos generosos para la innovación son compatibles con una distribución de ingresos relativamente equitativa, un alto gasto social por parte del gobierno y políticas sociales igualadoras como la educación gratuita universal.

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