Women cycling in Odense Tim Graham/Getty Images

从经济分析到包容性增长

华盛顿—大部分经济体正在寻找包容性经济增长的秘诀,即在追求高投资率、快速创新和强劲GDP增长的同时降低收入不平等性。保守派说增长需要低税收和激励(如灵活的劳动力市场)以鼓励企业家精神。但降低不平等性需要高水平的政府支出和税收(除非政府追求赤字支出以刺激萧条的经济)。

斯堪的纳维亚经济模式经常被用来填补这一缺口。特别是丹麦的“弹性保障”制度在历史上实现了良好的经济表现和较低的不平等性。菲利普·阿格希翁(Philippe Aghion)等著名经济学家发表了出色的分析研究这一模式如何在世界其他地区平衡增长、平等性和公民的总体满意度。

这些经济学家认为,不对雇用和解雇行为做限制的劳动力市场、对企业家精神课以低税收,以及慷慨的创新激励与相对平等的收入分配、较高的政府社会支出和全民免费教育等平等化社会政策是相容的。

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