Para arreglar nuestros dañados océanos

NAIROBI – Muchas personas saben que los océanos cubren más del 70 por ciento de la superficie del mundo y que la pesca marina proporciona alimentos para miles de millones de personas. Lo que es menos sabido es que las zonas de alta mar –las zonas de los océanos del mundo que quedan allende los límites de la jurisdicción nacional, que se extiende hasta 200 millas de la costa– constituyen las dos terceras partes, aproximadamente, de nuestros océanos y el 45 por ciento de la superficie del planeta.

Esa zona, que tal vez contenga la mayor reserva de diversidad biológica que queda en la Tierra, es explotada por muchos países, pero nadie la gestiona. Además, está sometida a una presión extrema. Según las conclusiones de las Perspectivas del Medio Ambiente Mundial del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente (PNUMA), tres cuartas partes de la pesquerías marinas están explotadas hasta el máximo –o más aún– de su capacidad máxima. Según el más reciente informe “Estado de la pesca y la acuicultura del mundo” de las Naciones Unidas, el 85 por ciento –o más aún– de las poblaciones de peces están totalmente explotadas: los mayores niveles jamás registrados.

Desde luego, el problema no es la falta de compromisos, incluidos los formulados en la Cumbre de la Tierra, celebrada en Río de Janeiro en 1992. Más bien, lo que falta es su cumplimiento.

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