Réparer le marché de l’immobilier défectueux de l’Amérique

NEW YORK – Un signe évident du dysfonctionnement d’une économie de marché est la persistance du chômage. Aux Etats-Unis aujourd’hui, un travailleur sur six qui aimerait avoir un travail à plein temps n’en trouve pas. C’est une économie dont les besoins sont largement insatisfaits et dont d’importantes ressources sont inutilisées.

Le marché de l’immobilier est une autre anomalie américaine : il y a des centaines de milliers de sans abri (plus d’un million et demi d’Américains ont passé au moins une nuit dans un refuge en 2009), tandis que des centaines de milliers de maisons sont vides.

Le taux de saisies est d’ailleurs en hausse constante. Deux millions d’Américains ont perdu leur maison en 2008 et 2,8 millions de plus en 2009, et les chiffres devraient être même plus élevés pour 2010. Nos marchés financiers ont connu des performances catastrophiques – des marchés performants, « rationnels », ne prêtent pas à des personnes qui ne peuvent ou ne pourront pas rembourser – et pourtant ceux qui gèrent ces marchés ont été récompensés comme s’ils étaient des génies de la finance.

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