En busca de las claves para la prosperidad nacional

NUEVA YORK.– En muchas de las reformas económicas más exitosas de la historia, los países inteligentes han aprendido de las políticas exitosas de otros, adaptándolas a sus situaciones locales. En la larga historia del desarrollo económico, la Gran Bretaña del siglo dieciocho aprendió de Holanda; la Prusia de principios del siglo diecinueve, de Gran Bretaña y Francia; el Japón Meiji de mediados del siglo diecinueve aprendió de Alemania; la Europa post-Segunda Guerra Mundial aprendió de Estados Unidos; y la China de Deng Xiaoping, del Japón.

A través de un proceso de préstamos institucionales y adaptación creativa, las instituciones económicas exitosas y las tecnologías de avanzada se diseminaron por el mundo, impulsando así el crecimiento global. Actualmente también existen algunas grandes oportunidades para este tipo de «arbitraje de políticas», solo es necesario que más países dediquen tiempo a aprender del éxito de otros.

Por ejemplo, mientras muchos países enfrentan una crisis laboral, hay una parte del capitalismo a la que le va bien: el norte de Europa, incluidos Alemania, los Países Bajos y Escandinavia. La tasa de desempleo en Alemania el verano pasado rondaba el 5,5%, y el desempleo entre los jóvenes era de aproximadamente el 8% –sorprendentemente bajo si se lo compara con muchas otras economías de altos ingresos.

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