La chiave per la prosperità nazionale

NEW YORK – In molte delle più riuscite riforme economiche della storia, i Paesi brillanti hanno imparato dai successi politici degli altri, adattandoli alle condizioni locali. Nella lunga storia dello sviluppo economico la Gran Bretagna del diciottesimo secolo imparò dall’Olanda; la Prussia di inizio diciannovesimo secolo dalla Gran Bretagna e dalla Francia; il Giappone di Meiji di metà diciannovesimo secolo dalla Germania; l’Europa del secondo dopoguerra dagli Stati Uniti; e la Cina di Deng Xiaoping dal Giappone.

Attraverso un processo di prestiti istituzionali e adattamento creativo, le efficaci istituzioni economiche e le tecnologie all’avanguardia si diffondono in tutto il mondo, incentivando la crescita globale. Anche oggi esistono grandi opportunità per questo tipo di “arbitraggio politico,” se solo più Paesi si prendessero il tempo di imparare dai successi di altri Paesi.

Ad esempio, mentre molti Paesi stanno affrontando una crisi occupazionale, una parte del mondo capitalista sta andando bene: il nord Europa, inclusa la Germania, i Paesi Bassi e la Scandinavia. Il tasso di disoccupazione della Germania quest’estate si aggiravano attorno al 5,5% e il tasso di disoccupazione giovanile attorno all’8%, percentuali notevolmente basse rispetto a numerose altre economie ad alto reddito.

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