Hledání klíčů k národní prosperitě

NEW YORK – Při mnoha historicky nejzdařilejších hospodářských reformách si chytré země vzaly ponaučení z úspěšných politik jiných zemí a přizpůsobily je svým podmínkám. Během dlouhých dějin hospodářského rozvoje se Británie osmnáctého století poučila od Holandska, Prusko počátku devatenáctého století od Británie a Francie, Japonsko za Meidžiho ve druhé polovině devatenáctého století od Německa, Evropa po druhé světové válce od Spojených států a Čína za Teng Siao-pchinga od Japonska.

Pomocí institucionálních výpůjček a kreativní adaptace se úspěšné ekonomické instituce a špičkové technologie šíří po světě, čímž posilují globální růst. I dnes se nabízejí obrovské příležitosti pro takovouto „arbitráž politických přístupů“, jen kdyby více zemí věnovalo dostatek času učení se z úspěchů jiných.

Řada zemí se například potýká s krizí zaměstnanosti, avšak jedna část kapitalistického světa potíže nemá: severní Evropa, včetně Německa, Nizozemska a Skandinávie. Letos v létě německá míra nezaměstnanosti činila asi 5,5 % a tamní míra nezaměstnanosti mladých zhruba 8 % – oproti mnoha jiným ekonomikám s vysokými příjmy pozoruhodně málo.

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