Olivier Douliery/Stringer

انقطاع العولمة

نيوهافين ــ على الرغم من أناقتها ظاهريا من الناحية النظرية، فإن العولمة تقاسي في الممارسة العملية. وهذا هو الدرس المستفاد من الخروج البريطاني وصعود دونالد ترامب في الولايات المتحدة. وهو ما يشكل أيضا الأساس لردة الفِعل المتزايدة الخبث المناهضة للصين والتي تجتاح العالم الآن. ويتعين على أولئك الذين يتعبدون على مذبح التجارة الحرة ــ وأنا من بينهم ــ أن يعكفوا على دراسة هذا الانقطاع الصارخ.

في حقيقة الأمر، لا توجد نظرية صارمة تحكم العولمة. وأفضل ما يستطيع خبراء الاقتصاد تقديمه هو الإطار الذي وضعه ديفيد ريكاردو في أوائل القرن التاسع عشر: إذا كانت أي دولة تنتج ببساطة بما يتفق مع ميزتها النسبية (في ما يتصل بتوفر الموارد ومهارات العمال)، فإنها سرعان ما تحقق المكاسب من خلال زيادة التجارة عبر الحدود. وتَعِد التجارة الحرة ــ أكسير العولمة ــ بفوائد تعود على الجميع.

بوسعنا أن نزعم أن هذا الوعد صامد في الأمد البعيد، ولكن من المحتم أن تحدث مراجعة أشد صرامة للواقع في الأمد القريب. ولم يكن انسحاب المملكة المتحدة من الاتحاد الأوروبي سوى أحدث مثال على ذلك.

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