Una propuesta de financiamiento para la lucha contra el cambio climático

COPENHAGUE – Ahora es generalmente aceptado que los países desarrollados tendrán que hacer una contribución financiera significativa para que el mundo en desarrollo pueda encarar el cambio climático. Se necesitan fondos para invertir en nuevas fuentes de energía bajas en carbono, reforestación y protección de las selvas tropicales, cambios en el uso del suelo, así como adaptación y mitigación. No obstante, no existe el mismo consenso en cuanto a la fuente de este financiamiento.

Los países desarrollados son reacios a asumir compromisos financieros adicionales. Sus deudas nacionales acaban de experimentar un aumento importante, y aún tienen que estimular sus economías internas. Esto influye en sus actitudes. Parece que lograrán improvisar un “fondo de arranque" de 10,000 millones de dólares anuales durante los próximos años pero sus presupuestos nacionales no pueden abarcar más. Es poco probable que esto sea suficiente para los países en desarrollo.

Pienso que esta cantidad podría por lo menos duplicarse y garantizarse por un periodo más largo. Los gobiernos de los países desarrollados están partiendo de la idea errónea de que los fondos deben salir de sus presupuestos nacionales. Sin embargo, eso no es así. Ya tienen el dinero. Está guardado sin usar en sus cuentas de reservas en el Fondo Monetario Internacional. Gastarlo no aumentaría el déficit fiscal de ningún país. Lo único que tienen que hacer es disponer del dinero.

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