Le Pacte de croissance dysfonctionnel de l’Europe

BRUXELLES – Un trou de près de 10 milliards d’euros est récemment apparu dans le budget de l’Union européenne de cette année. En conséquence, l’UE ne peut plus rembourser les États membres pour des dépenses exceptionnelles, dont les frais d’urgence, tels l’aide aux victimes italiennes du tremblement de terre, ni financer les dépenses visant à soutenir la croissance économique et l’emploi, comme l’absorption accélérée des Fonds structurels et de cohésion inutilisés. Les États membres ont opposé un refus à la demande de la Commission européenne de contributions supplémentaires pour combler ce trou, menant à l’impasse des discussions sur le budget 2013.

Dans l’intervalle, les négociations sur le cadre financier pluriannuel 2014-2020 (CFP), le principal instrument de planification de l’utilisation des fonds de l’UE, ont également achoppé à cause de désaccords sur des questions clés, notamment la taille du budget et l’allocation des dépenses. La décision a été reportée au début de l’année prochaine.

La situation souligne l’ambiguïté entourant le rôle du budget de l’UE dans l’intégration européenne. Bien que tous les chefs d’État et de gouvernement de l’UE aient défendu l’idée d’utiliser le budget pour stimuler la croissance économique, peu de mesures concrètes ont été prises. Cette conjoncture soulève des doutes quant au pacte sur la croissance et l’emploi adopté par le Conseil européen en juin dernier, et en particulier quant à l’engagement politique à mobiliser rapidement 120 milliards d’euros en réaffectant les Fonds structurels et de cohésion inutilisés et en augmentant la capacité de prêt de la Banque européenne d’investissement.

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