Munir Uz Zaman/AFP/Getty Images

L’inclusion financière et plus

CAMBRIDGE – Puisque les services financiers traditionnels ne sont pas conçus pour les petits épargnants ni pour les petits emprunteurs, plusieurs modèles non traditionnels se sont rapidement implantés dans ce marché non exploité. Mais, sans plan de route des stratégies d’orientation des développements futurs des technologies financières (fintech), ces nouveaux modèles de « connexion » resteront limités en ce qui concerne les services qu’ils peuvent offrir.

Au Kenya, le succès de M-Pesa, une application de paiements sur appareils portables, n’a été rien de moins qu’une métamorphose. Il a fallu à PayPal deux inscriptions sur le parquet du NASDAQ et presque deux décennies d’activité dans la plus grande économie du monde pour atteindre le chiffre de 188 millions de clients actifs et 282 milliards $ en valeur annuelle de paiements. Même si M-Pesa exerce ses activités depuis moins d’une décennie dans un marché à revenu disponible beaucoup moins élevé, elle peut se targuer, depuis l’an dernier, de 17 millions d’utilisateurs actifs effectuant plus de 50 milliards $ en virements.

De la même manière, bKash domine tellement le système des paiements au Bangladesh que « bKashing » est entré dans le langage courant des Bengalis, comme « Googler » en français.

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