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Una Rivoluzione in Banca

KUALA LUMPUR – Le autorità di regolamentazione finanziaria sono generalmente note per adottare un approccio misurato e prudente ai cambiamenti. Ma nelle aree in via di sviluppo, tale reputazione sta subendo uno stravolgimento. In alcuni dei paesi più poveri del mondo, le banche centrali si sono dimostrate disposte a prendere decisioni coraggiose – adottando approcci innovativi nel tentativo di ampliare la partecipazione al sistema finanziario ufficiale, di aumentare la stabilità finanziaria, e di mettere i paesi interessati sulla strada di una crescita economica inclusiva e sostenibile.

L’ampliamento dell’inclusione finanziaria richiede che venga fondamentalmente riconsiderato il modo in cui il sistema finanziario di un paese è organizzato e funziona. Inoltre spesso necessita di utilizzare strumenti estranei alle tecniche tradizionali delle banche centrali. In Kenya, per esempio, i funzionari hanno modificato il quadro normativo per consentire lo sviluppo del “mobile money”. In Malesia, la banca centrale ha assunto un ruolo guida per la crescita del livello di alfabetizzazione finanziaria del pubblico. E nelle Filippine, il Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas ha contribuito a raddoppiare il numero di punti di accesso in cui i consumatori possono ottenere servizi finanziari, sostenendo l’apertura di 517 uffici di micro-banking, molti dei quali in comuni sprovvisti di filiali bancarie tradizionali.

Allo stesso modo, nel 2011, la Banca della Tanzania si è assunta l’obbligo specifico di incrementare l’inclusione finanziaria secondo la “Maya Declaration” dell’Alliance for Financial Inclusion, un impegno da parte dei politici delle realtà in via di sviluppo inteso a sbloccare il potenziale sociale ed economico dei poveri. Il risultato ha superato di gran lunga le aspettative. La Tanzania ha raggiunto, un anno prima del previsto, l’obiettivo di dare accesso alle banche al 50% dei cittadini adulti, rendendo il paese leader globale nel settore dei servizi finanziari digitali. Come nel vicino Kenya, la svolta è dovuta all’adozione diffusa del “mobile money”. “Può sembrare poco ortodosso”, ha dichiarato Benno Ndulu, il governatore della banca. “Ma dobbiamo lasciare che l’innovazione precorra i regolamenti”.

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