Man trading stocks online

银行家的革命

吉隆坡—一般认为,金融监管者对于变化采取克制慎重的态度。但在发达世界,这一名声正在发生颠覆。在一些世界上最贫困的国家,央行官员愿意采取果断措施——为了加大在正式金融体系中的参与、增加金融稳定以及让国家走上包容的可持续经济增长之路,他们实施了创新方针。

增加金融包容性需要从根本上反思一国的金融体系是如何构造和运行的。此外,通常还必须用到传统央行工具箱之外的工具。比如,在肯尼亚,官员改变监管框架以便利移动资金(mobile money)的增长。在马来西亚,央行在提高公共金融知识水平方面起着领导作用。在菲律宾,菲律宾央行将消费者能够获得金融服务的接入点数量扩大了一倍,支持517家微银行开张,其中许多开在没有传统银行网点的行政区。

类似地,2011年,坦桑尼亚银行根据金融包容联盟(Alliance for Financial Inclusion)的玛雅宣言,做出了增加金融包容性的具体承诺。玛雅宣言是发展中国家决策者解放穷人社会和经济潜力的承诺。结果是造成了巨大的、大大超过的预期。坦桑尼亚提前一年实现了其为50%成年公民提供银行服务的目标,该国也成为数字金融服务的全球领先者。在其邻国肯尼亚,局面改变因素是移动资金的广泛使用。“听起来也许有点不可思议,”肯尼亚央行行长尼杜杜(Benno Ndulu)说,“但我们必须让创新走在监管之前。”

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