Guy saves marijuana plant from fire in California Josh Edelson/Stringer

Federalismo y resistencia progresista en Estados Unidos

BERKELEY – El año 2016 trajo consigo un ascenso del populismo en Estados Unidos, el Reino Unido y muchos otros países desarrollados. El estancamiento de los ingresos, las inciertas oportunidades de avance económico y un amplio descontento provocado por la pérdida de fe en el progreso llevaron a los votantes a apoyar a candidatos que prometen devolver el poder al “pueblo” y sacudir los cimientos de unos sistemas “arreglados” por la dirigencia política tradicional para favorecer a una “élite” corrupta. En Estados Unidos, la creciente diversidad étnica, las tensiones raciales contenidas y los cambios en las costumbres sociales echaron más leña al fuego electoral.

Un prolongado proceso de debilitamiento de la confianza de los estadounidenses en el gobierno federal culminó con la victoria de Donald Trump en la elección presidencial de noviembre: pese a los altos niveles de aprobación pública del presidente Barack Obama, sólo el 19% de los estadounidenses creen que el gobierno federal hace lo correcto. Dadas las prioridades tradicionales de los republicanos (visibles en las designaciones del presidente electo Trump para el gabinete), es probable una reducción de programas del gobierno federal (con la notable excepción del gasto en defensa). Irónicamente, los recortes de gasto en salud, educación, capacitación laboral y medioambiente, sumados a grandes rebajas regresivas de los impuestos personales y corporativos, derivarán más riqueza hacia la “élite” y afectarán a programas que benefician a la mayoría de las familias.

Pero los grandes retos sociales y económicos que son objeto de los programas federales no desaparecerán: en vez de eso, una cuota mayor de la responsabilidad de hacerles frente recaerá sobre los gobiernos estatales y locales, que tendrán que abordarlos con soluciones innovadoras. De hecho, la respuesta al trumpismo es el “federalismo progresista”: la búsqueda de objetivos políticos progresistas por medio de la considerable autoridad que el sistema federal estadounidense delega a los gobiernos de nivel subnacional.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in;
  1. Television sets showing a news report on Xi Jinping's speech Anthony Wallace/Getty Images

    Empowering China’s New Miracle Workers

    China’s success in the next five years will depend largely on how well the government manages the tensions underlying its complex agenda. In particular, China’s leaders will need to balance a muscular Communist Party, setting standards and protecting the public interest, with an empowered market, driving the economy into the future.

  2. United States Supreme Court Hisham Ibrahim/Getty Images

    The Sovereignty that Really Matters

    The preference of some countries to isolate themselves within their borders is anachronistic and self-defeating, but it would be a serious mistake for others, fearing contagion, to respond by imposing strict isolation. Even in states that have succumbed to reductionist discourses, much of the population has not.

  3.  The price of Euro and US dollars Daniel Leal Olivas/Getty Images

    Resurrecting Creditor Adjustment

    When the Bretton Woods Agreement was hashed out in 1944, it was agreed that countries with current-account deficits should be able to limit temporarily purchases of goods from countries running surpluses. In the ensuing 73 years, the so-called "scarce-currency clause" has been largely forgotten; but it may be time to bring it back.

  4. Leaders of the Russian Revolution in Red Square Keystone France/Getty Images

    Trump’s Republican Collaborators

    Republican leaders have a choice: they can either continue to collaborate with President Donald Trump, thereby courting disaster, or they can renounce him, finally putting their country’s democracy ahead of loyalty to their party tribe. They are hardly the first politicians to face such a decision.

  5. Angela Merkel, Theresa May and Emmanuel Macron John Thys/Getty Images

    How Money Could Unblock the Brexit Talks

    With talks on the UK's withdrawal from the EU stalled, negotiators should shift to the temporary “transition” Prime Minister Theresa May officially requested last month. Above all, the negotiators should focus immediately on the British budget contributions that will be required to make an orderly transition possible.

  6. Ksenia Sobchak Mladlen Antonov/Getty Images

    Is Vladimir Putin Losing His Grip?

    In recent decades, as President Vladimir Putin has entrenched his authority, Russia has seemed to be moving backward socially and economically. But while the Kremlin knows that it must reverse this trajectory, genuine reform would be incompatible with the kleptocratic character of Putin’s regime.

  7. Right-wing parties hold conference Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images

    Rage Against the Elites

    • With the advantage of hindsight, four recent books bring to bear diverse perspectives on the West’s current populist moment. 
    • Taken together, they help us to understand what that moment is and how it arrived, while reminding us that history is contingent, not inevitable

    Global Bookmark

    Distinguished thinkers review the world’s most important new books on politics, economics, and international affairs.

  8. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin Bill Clark/Getty Images

    Don’t Bank on Bankruptcy for Banks

    As a part of their efforts to roll back the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act, congressional Republicans have approved a measure that would have courts, rather than regulators, oversee megabank bankruptcies. It is now up to the Trump administration to decide if it wants to set the stage for a repeat of the Lehman Brothers collapse in 2008.