Janet Yellen Brookings Institution/Flickr

Proč Fed pohřbil monetarismus

LONDÝN – Toho, kdo pozorně sledoval komentáře předsedkyně Federálního rezervního systému USA Janet Yellenové, nepřekvapí rozhodnutí Fedu odložit zvýšení sazeb. Fed tímto krokem pouze potvrdil, že není lhostejný vůči mezinárodnímu finančnímu stresu a že jeho přístup k řízení rizik zůstává pevně přikloněn k „nižším sazbám na delší dobu“. Proč se tedy trhy i média chovají, jako by jednání Fedu (či přesněji řečeno jeho nejednání) bylo nečekané?

Trhy ve skutečnosti nešokovalo rozhodnutí Fedu ponechat ještě několik měsíců nulové úrokové sazby, nýbrž prohlášení, které jej doprovázelo. Fed prozradil, že ho vůbec neznepokojují rizika vyšší inflace a že by velmi rád stlačil nezaměstnanost pod úroveň kolem 5 %, již většina ekonomů pokládá za „přirozenou“.

Právě tento vztah – mezi inflací a nezaměstnaností – je jádrem všech polemik o měnové politice a působení centrálních bank. Téměř všechny moderní ekonomické modely, včetně těch, které využívá Fed, se zakládají na monetaristické teorii úrokových sazeb, již prvně předložil Milton Friedman ve svém předsednickém projevu k Americké ekonomické asociaci v roce 1967.

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