美联储与价格稳定

旧金山—美联储维持“物价稳定”的使命(由联邦储备法明文规定)和美联储自己选择的2%通胀目标之间有一个极大的不同点。那么,决策者为何用后者代替前者呢?

“物价稳定”一词顾名思义是指一揽子商品今后十年、50年甚至100年价格都不会变。相反,如果一国以每年2%的通胀度过十年吗,那么今天100美元可以买到的东西,十年好需要花122美元购买。100年后,价格标签将变成724美元。

最新的国会听证中,美联储主席耶伦数次提到保持“物价稳定”的使命,但提到美联储2%的通胀目标的次数是前者的两倍。“美国通胀仍低于委员会2%的目标,”她说,当前的“高度政策协调仍然有利于刺激劳动力市场条件进一步改善、促使通胀在中期回到2%。”

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