Adiós a las antiguas divisiones del desarrollo

La noción de una división entre el norte rico y el sur pobre y en desarrollo ha sido durante mucho tiempo un concepto central entre los economistas y los estrategas políticos. Desde 1950 hasta 1980, el norte representaba casi el 80% del PBI global pero apenas el 22% de su población, y el sur, el resto de la población global y el 20% del ingreso global.

Pero la división norte-sur hoy es obsoleta. El proceso dinámico de la globalización resultó en niveles sin precedentes de crecimiento e interdependencia. Sin embargo, mientras se ha desdibujado la antigua división, surgieron otras nuevas, fragmentando al mundo de hoy en cuatro grupos interconectados.

El primer grupo abarca a los países adinerados, principalmente Estados Unidos, las naciones europeas, Australia y Japón –con una población combinada de unos 1.000 millones de habitantes e ingresos per capita que oscilan entre 79.000 dólares (Luxemburgo) y 16.000 dólares (República de Corea)-. En los últimos 50 años, estos países pudientes han dominado la economía global, generando el 20% de su producción económica. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, surgió un nuevo conjunto de economías que compite con los países adinerados por el predominio económico.

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