Adieu aux anciens clivages du développement

La notion d’une division entre le Nord, riche, et le Sud, pauvre et en développement, a pendant longtemps été au centre des concepts des économistes et des décisionnaires. Entre 1950 et 1980, le Nord représentait près de 80 pour cent du PIB mondial, contre seulement 22 pour cent de sa population, tandis que le Sud abritait le restant de la population mondiale avec 20 pour cent du revenu mondial.

Cette division Nord-Sud est aujourd’hui obsolète. La dynamique de la mondialisation s’est traduite par une croissance et une interdépendance sans précédent. Toutefois, même si ce processus a atténué l’ancien clivage, de nouvelles divisions sont apparues, segmentant le monde en quatre étages interconnectés.

Le premier étage comprend les pays riches, avec notamment les Etats-Unis, les pays européens, l’Australie et le Japon, avec une population totale de près d’un milliard et des revenus variant entre 79.000 dollars par tête (au Luxembourg) et 16.000 dollars (en Corée du Sud). Depuis 50 ans, ces pays riches ont dominé l’économie mondiale, et réunis, ont été responsables des quatre cinquièmes de la production mondiale. Mais ces dernières années, un groupe d’économies émergentes a commencé à contester la suprématie économique des pays riches.

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