Sbohem starým rozvojovým rozdílům

Představa propasti mezi bohatým severem a chudým a rozvojovým jihem je už dlouho ústřední koncepcí mnoha ekonomů a zákonodárců. V letech 1950 až 1980 tvořil sever téměř 80% světového HDP, ale jen 22% populace, zatímco jih představoval zbytek světové populace a 20% globálního důchodu.

Toto severo-jižní rozdělení je ale nyní zastaralé. Dynamický proces globalizace vyústil v bezprecedentní míry růstu a vzájemné závislosti. Avšak třebaže to rozmlžilo dřívější rozdíly, objevily se nové, které dnešní svět rozštěpily do čtyř vzájemně provázaných vrstev.

První vrstva se skládá ze zámožných zemí, především Spojených států, evropských zemí, Austrálie a Japonska – s celkovým počtem obyvatel kolem jedné miliardy a s příjmy na hlavu v rozmezí od 79 tisíc dolarů (Lucembursko) do 16 tisíc dolarů (Korejská republika). V uplynulých 50 letech tyto zámožné země dominovaly globální ekonomice a produkovaly čtyři pětiny jejího hospodářského výstupu. V posledních letech se však vynořila nová skupina ekonomik, jež s dominancí těchto zámožných zemí soupeří.

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