向告别旧的发展鸿沟

关于富裕和的北半球和贫困以及处于发展中的南半球之间的发展差距的观点很长时间以来都是经济学家和政策制订者的中心观点。从1950年到1980年,北半球贡献了全球GDP的大约80%,而其人口只占22%;南半球则占据了全球其余人口及占全球经济收入的20%。

但是关于南北差距的提法现在已经过时了。全球化的有力进程带来了前所未有的发展水平和各国的相互依赖。然而,在旧的那种差距被冲淡时,也出现了新的发展差距,把今天的世界分成了四个相互联系的层面。

第一层由富裕国家组成,主要是美国、欧洲国家、澳大利亚和日本。其总人口约达10亿,人均国民收入在79000美元(卢森堡)至16000美元(韩国)之间。在过去50年间,这些富裕国家主导了全球经济,占据了全球经济总产值的五分之四。然而,最近这些年出现的一些新的经济体对富裕国家的经济主导地位发起了挑战。

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