Carestia e speranza nel Corno d’Africa

NAIROBI – Ancora una volta il Corno d’Africa è nella morsa della carestia. Oltre dieci milioni di persone lottano per la sopravvivenza, soprattutto le comunità di pastori sparse nelle aride regioni della Somalia, dell’Etiopia e del Kenya settentrionale. Ogni giorno giungono notizie di nuovi morti e di massicci afflussi di persone affamate nei campi profughi del Kenya, non lontano dal confine somalo.

La causa primaria di questo disastro è evidente: da due anni non piove nelle aride regioni dell’Africa orientale. Questi sono luoghi dove l’acqua è talmente scarsa che la produzione agricola offre nella migliore delle ipotesi un limitato impatto economico. Milioni di famiglie, con decine di milioni di popolazioni nomadi o seminomadi, sono costrette a spostarsi con cammelli, pecore, capre e altro bestiame, che percorrono lunghe distanze prima di raggiungere pascoli irrigati da acqua piovana. Quando non piove, l’erba marcisce, il bestiame muore e le comunità soffrono la fame.

La pastorizia è da sempre un’attività difficile nel Corno d’Africa. La scelta dei luoghi dediti alla pastorizia dipende da piogge instabili e pressoché imprevedibili, piuttosto che dai confini politici. Eppure viviamo in un’era in cui i confini politici, anziché la vita dei pastori nomadi, sono sacrosanti. Tali confini, insieme alle crescenti popolazioni di agricoltori sedentari, hanno limitato le comunità pastorizie.

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