Hungersnot und Hoffnung am Horn von Afrika

NAIROBI – Wieder einmal wird das Horn von Afrika von einer Hungersnot heimgesucht. Mehr als zehn Millionen Menschen kämpfen ums Überleben, darunter hauptsächlich von der Viehzucht lebende Dorfgemeinschaften in den trockensten Regionen Somalias, Äthiopiens und Nordkenias. Jeden Tag hören wir von mehr Toten und dem massivem Zustrom hungernder Menschen aus Somalia in die kenianischen Flüchtlingslager.

Die unmittelbare Ursache für diese Katastrophe ist klar: In den trockenen Gegenden Ostafrikas ist schon das zweite Jahr hintereinander der Regen ausgeblieben. Dort ist das Wasser Jahr für Jahr so knapp, dass die Ernten bestenfalls karg ausfallen. Millionen Haushalte mit vielen Millionen nomadisch oder halbnomadisch lebender Menschen legen mitsamt ihrer Kamele, Schafe, Ziegen und anderen Tiere große Strecken zurück, um vom Regen bewässertes Weideland zu erreichen. Ohne den Regen verdorrt das Gras und verdurstet das Vieh, was die Menschen an den Rand des Hungertods bringt.

Seit langer Zeit ist die Viehwirtschaft am Horn von Afrika sehr schwierig. Die Lage der lebenswichtigen Weidegründe wird nicht von politischen Grenzen, sondern durch die wechselhaften und größtenteils unvorhersehbaren Regenfälle bestimmt. In der heutigen Zeit haben Landesgrenzen allerdings einen höheren Stellenwert als das Überleben nomadischer Viehbauern. Diese Grenzen und die steigende Anzahl sesshafter Landwirte behindern die Bewegungsfreiheit der Nomaden.

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