Hlad a naděje v Africkém rohu

NAIROBI – Africkým rohem už opět obchází hladomor. Více než deset tisíc lidí bojuje o přežití, zejména pak pastevecké komunity v supervyprahlých oblastech Somálska, Etiopie a severní Keni. Každý den přicházejí zprávy o dalších úmrtích a mohutných přílivech hladovějících lidí do uprchlických táborů v Keni za hranicemi Somálska.

Bezprostřední příčina této katastrofy je zřejmá: do suchých regionů východní Afriky už dva roky bez přestávky nepřišly deště. Jsou to místa, kde je voda rok co rok tak vzácná, že produkce plodin je tam přinejlepším okrajová. Miliony domácností čítající desetimiliony kočovných či polokočovných obyvatel chovají velbloudy, ovce, kozy a další dobytek, s nímž se přesouvají na velké vzdálenosti na deštěm živené pastviny. A když pak deště nepřijdou, tráva chřadne, dobytek umírá a komunity se potýkají s hladem.

Pastevectví je v Africkém rohu už dlouho trýznivým způsobem existence. Polohu a rozlohu životodárných pastvin určují nestálé a do značné míry nevyzpytatelné deště, nikoliv politické hranice. Přesto žijeme v éře, kdy nedotknutelné nejsou životy kočovných pastevců, nýbrž právě politické hranice. A tyto hranice spolu s rostoucím počtem usazených farmářů omezují pastevecké komunity.

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