Flooded road in Asia.

L’Arc d’une justice climatique

ISLAMABAD – C’est une ironie du sort et elle est douloureuse : ceux qui sont le moins responsables des changements climatiques sont aussi les plus exposés à leurs ravages. S’il est un pays qui souffre de l’injustice climatique, c’est bien le Pakistan. Alors que les dirigeants de la planète s’apprêtent à se réunir, à Paris, pour la Conférence des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques, ce pays n’est pas encore remis du choc d’inondations dévastatrices qui ont endommagé les habitations, détruit les récoltes, emporté les ponts et tué deux cent trente-huit personnes.

Ces tragédies causées par les intempéries ne sont pas nouvelles au Pakistan ; ce qui diffère, c’est leur fréquence, et leur violence. Les inondations mortelles surviennent désormais tous les ans. En 2010, des pluies sans précédent ont tué deux mille personnes et jeté hors de chez elles des millions d’autres. Et si le Pakistan mène contre le terrorisme l’une des batailles les plus rudes et acharnées que connaisse aujourd’hui le monde, les intempéries de plus en plus violentes, qui augmentent le coût des denrées et de l’eau potable, mettent en danger ses approvisionnements d’énergie et sapent son économie font peser une menace non moins puissante sur sa sécurité.

Il ne fait aucun doute que les tribulations climatiques du pays sont dues, pour partie du moins, aux gaz à effet de serre que les pays industrialisés refoulent dans l’atmosphère depuis le début de la révolution industrielle. Aujourd’hui, le Pakistan produit moins d’un pour cent des émissions mondiales. Alors même qu’il est régulièrement considéré comme l’un des pays les plus vulnérables aux effets dévastateurs des changements climatiques, étant données sa démographie, sa géographie et sa situation climatique naturelle.

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