Contratos justos para países pobres

Una cantidad de países en América latina, Africa, Europa del este y otras partes están derogando o renegociando contratos con las empresas multinacionales (EMNs) y probablemente otros les sigan los pasos. Los costos pueden ser elevados. Los gobiernos pueden recibir mejores términos, pero también pueden verse involucrados en disputas internacionales y desalentar a otros inversores. Para las empresas, las renegociaciones implican incertidumbre y posibles interrupciones de producción e ingresos.

Las alteraciones significativas en el poder (por lo general, como resultado de cambios en los precios de las materias primas) y la ideología, o cambios en la economía de los proyectos, pueden conducir a renegociaciones, especialmente cuando se trata de grandes inversiones en recursos naturales e infraestructura. Pero, muchas veces, la razón es que el país anfitrión considera que un contrato es injusto.

Si bien la "justicia" bien puede depender del cristal con que se la mire, en algunos casos, el país anfitrión tal vez no haya tenido la experticia necesaria para negociar el mejor trato posible -una situación frecuente cuando las EMNs negocian con los países menos desarrollados (los 50 países más pobres del mundo, la mayoría de ellos en el Africa subsahariana)-. El acuerdo de 2005 de Mittal con Liberia (renegociado el año pasado) y varios contratos con Congo probablemente entren, al menos en parte, en esta categoría, al igual que algunos acuerdos en los países ex soviéticos.

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