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El fracaso de migración libre

LONDRES – El horrendo atentado en Niza contra una multitud que celebraba el Día de la Bastilla perpetrado por un hombre franco-tunecino, en el que murieron 84 personas y cientos más fueron heridas, dará a la líder del Frente Nacional Marine Le Pen un gran impulso en las elecciones presidenciales que se llevarán a cabo la próxima primavera. No importa si el asesino, Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel, tenía o no algún vínculo con el islamismo radical. A lo largo y ancho de todo el mundo occidental, existe una mezcla tóxica de inseguridad física, económica y cultural que ha ido alimentando políticas y sentimientos anti migratorios, precisamente en el momento en que la desintegración de los Estados post-coloniales a lo largo de la media luna islámica produce un problema de refugiados en una escala nunca antes vista desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Durante los últimos 30 años, poco más o menos, un punto de referencia clave de las sociedades liberales democráticas fue su apertura a los recién llegados. Sólo los fanáticos no podían entender que la inmigración beneficia a ambos: anfitriones y migrantes; por esta razón, la tarea de los líderes políticos fue mantener las opiniones de dichos fanáticos fuera de las corrientes dominantes y facilitar la integración o asimilación de los migrantes. Lamentablemente, la mayoría de las elites occidentales no apreciaron las condiciones para el éxito.

Si bien el movimiento de personas ha sido una constante durante la historia de la humanidad, ese movimiento tuvo lugar prácticamente sin derramamiento de sangre, sólo hubo algún problema cuando las personas llegaban a territorios poco desarrollados o poblados. Un caso clásico fue las emigraciones del siglo XIX desde Europa al Nuevo Mundo. Entre 1840 y 1914, 55 millones de personas abandonaron Europa con dirección a las Américas – un desplazamiento mucho más grande, si se lo considera como proporción del total de la población, que la migración a partir de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Casi todas las personas que salían fueron migrantes económicos, quienes se sentían expulsados fuera de sus países por el hambre y la depresión agrícola y se vieron atraídos al Nuevo Mundo por la promesa de recibir tierras gratis y una vida mejor.

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