С широко закрытыми глазами на глобальное потепление

Киотский протокол по контролю за изменением климата предусматривал, по словам профессора Гарвардского университета Роба Ставинса, «слишком мало, слишком быстро». С одной стороны, поскольку он распространялся только на страны, на долю которых к середине века, по расчетам, придется около половины всех мировых выбросов парниковых газов, он не являлся эффективной долгосрочной гарантией против опасностей глобального потепления. С другой стороны, поскольку он требовал от промышленных стран значительного и дорогостоящего сокращения выбросов в короткий период времени, он угрожал немедленными огромными затратами американской, европейской и японской экономикам. Другими словами, Киотское соглашение означало большие краткосрочные издержки ради небольших долгосрочных приобретений.

Европейский Союз и американские экономисты в администрации Клинтона приводили доводы в пользу утверждения Киотского протокола, создавая модели, не отражавшие его сущность. Эти модели предусматривали будущее присоединение к Киотскому протоколу развивающихся стран и продажу ими прав на выброс CO2 и других парниковых газов Соединенным Штатам и Европе взамен на помощь в целях развития.

Но несколько лет спустя подписания Киотского протокола я пока что не встретил человека, понимающего, о чем они говорят, и готового защищать Киотский протокол как реальную глобальную государственную политику. Одни говорят, что «он был возможностью начать принимать меры» в отношении изменения климата. «Это было способом заставить мир открыть глаза на серьезность проблемы», - говорят другие.

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