Pius Utomi Ekpei/AFP/Getty Images

Como a corrupção alimenta as mudanças climáticas

LONDRES, BERLIM – Os defensores anti-corrupção alcançaram um conjunto de vitórias cruciais em 2016, designadamente ao garantirem a responsabilização de um dos negócios mais corruptos da indústria petrolífera internacional (NdT: Big Oil no original): a aquisição em 2011 do OPL 245, uma concessão petrolífera off-shore Nigeriana, pela Royal Dutch Shell e pela Eni, a maior empresa de Itália. Em Dezembro passado, a Comissão de Crimes Económicos e Financeiros da Nigéria acusou alguns dos Nigerianos envolvidos, e os procuradores Italianos concluíram a sua própria investigação, trazendo os dirigentes e as empresas responsáveis pelo negócio para mais perto de serem julgados.

Alguns meses antes, em Junho de 2016, a Comissão de Valores Mobiliários dos EUA publicou uma regra, ao abrigo da Secção 1504 da Lei Dodd-Frank, de 2010, que exige, às empresas petrolíferas, de gás e mineiras, a divulgação de todos os pagamentos efectuados a governos, discriminados por projecto. Se a CVM tivesse emitido esta regra mais cedo, a Shell e a Eni não teriam concluído o negócio do OPL 245, porque teriam de divulgar o seu pagamento. Mas a oposição da indústria petrolífera atrasou a regra, e as empresas puderam ocultar o seu pagamento.

O ano passado também marcou a primeira vez, em milhões de anos, que a concentração de CO2 na atmosfera atingiu as 400 partes por milhão (ppm). Embora o acordo de Paris sobre o clima tenha sido recebido como um grande sucesso, aquando da sua conclusão em Dezembro de 2015, muitos signatários demonstraram uma notável falta de ambição relativamente aos seus compromissos de redução das emissões de carbono. Para se compreender porquê, basta vermos a extensão absoluta com que os nossos sistemas de governo foram capturados pela influência corruptora dos interesses instituídos.

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