Pius Utomi Ekpei/AFP/Getty Images

La corruzione che alimenta il cambiamento climatico

LONDRA, BERLINO – Gli attivisti anti-corruzione hanno segnato una serie di vittorie cruciali nel 2016, tra cui l’aver garantito che le “Big Oil” , ossia le grandi compagnie petrolifere, rispondessero per uno dei loro affari più loschi: l’acquisizione nel 2011 della concessione per lo sfruttamento del blocco petrolifero nigeriano Opl-245 da parte della Royal Dutch Shell e di Eni, la più grande società petrolifera italiana. Lo scorso dicembre, la Commissione d’inchiesta nigeriana sui crimini economici e finanziari ha messo sotto indagine alcuni soggetti nigeriani coinvolti, e i Pm italiani, che ora hanno concluso le indagini, rinviano a giudizio i dirigenti e i soggetti coinvolti in quest’operazione.

Diversi mesi prima, nel giugno 2016, la Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) americana ha pubblicato una norma, conforme all’Articolo 1504 del Dodd-Frank Act del 2010, che richiede alle società petrolifere, minerarie e di gas di divulgare la rendicontazione di tutti i pagamenti effettuati per ogni progetto a favore dei governi. Se la SEC avesse emesso prima questa norma, Shell e Eni non si sarebbero spinti così avanti con l’accordo Opl-245, perché avrebbero dovuto divulgare i rispettivi pagamenti. Ma l’opposizione da parte dell’industria petrolifera ha ritardato la norma, così che le compagnie riuscissero ad occultare i propri pagamenti.

E per la per la prima volta dopo milioni di anni il 2016 è stato anche l’anno in cui la concentrazione di CO2 nell’atmosfera ha raggiunto le 400 particelle per milione (ppm). Se da un lato l’Accordo di Parigi sul clima è stato acclamato come un grande successo quando fu stipulato nel dicembre del 2015, molti firmatari si sono dimostrati decisamente poco ambiziosi nel mantenere i propri impegni rispetto alla riduzione del carbonio. Per capire perché, bisogna considerare il potere degli interessi acquisiti e il peso della corruzione sui nostri sistemi di governo.

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