russia protest 2011 Alexander Aleshkin/Epsilon/Getty Images

Rusia, “espiada” por organizaciones sin fines de lucro

LONDRES – Nada perjudica tanto la imagen de Rusia en Occidente hoy como su ley sobre agentes extranjeros. Aprobada en julio de 2012, la ley obliga a toda organización no comercial (ONC) que se dedique a “actividades políticas” (algo que la ley no define) a registrarse en el Ministerio de Justicia declarando cumplir “funciones de un agente extranjero”. Luego en 2015 se aprobó una ley sobre “organizaciones indeseables” que obliga a todas esas ONC a identificarse públicamente como tales agentes.

La elección de palabras es peculiar y significativa. Al fin y al cabo, ¿qué se entiende por “funciones de un agente extranjero” en sentido coloquial sino servir a los intereses de una potencia extranjera? En la práctica, la ley rusa impide a ONC sin control estatal realizar cualquier actividad en el país. Y la designación de agente extranjero les impide recibir financiación rusa que les permita salir del registro. No sólo son extranjeras: ¡también son infiltradas y traidoras!

Algunas organizaciones optaron por el cierre voluntario; otras fueron suprimidas por incumplimiento de la normativa; y hay otras que se exiliaron. Algunas víctimas notables han sido el Centro Sakharov, el Centro Conmemorativo de los Derechos Humanos y la Escuela de Educación Cívica de Moscú. La Universidad Europea de San Petersburgo, tras repeler un intento anterior de estigmatización como “agente extranjero”, ahora se enfrenta a un eventual cierre por infracciones técnicas banales (una táctica burocrática favorita).

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