russia protest 2011 Alexander Aleshkin/Epsilon/Getty Images

俄罗斯的非营利间谍们

发自伦敦——没有什么比对俄罗斯针对外国代理人的法律更让西方恼火的了。 这项2012年7月通过的法律要求所有从事(未定义)“政治活动”的非商业组织以“承担外国代理人职能”的名目在俄罗斯司法部注册。而随后于2015年制定的《不良组织法》要求所有这些非政府组织公开将自身定义为为“外国代理人”。

这个定义既怪异又意味深长。毕竟在一般术语中,所谓“外国代理人的职能”除了服务于外国利益外还有其他含义吗?事实上,俄罗斯法律有效地阻止了非国家控制的非政府组织在该国开展任何活动。显然这种设计使它们无法获得俄罗斯政府的资助,从而迫使它们自行注销。可见它们不仅被视为外国人:还是渗透者和叛徒!

有些组织自愿解散;其他则因不符合规定而遭压制;还有一些则流亡海外。其中比较出名的受迫害者是萨哈罗夫中心,人权纪念中心和莫斯科公民教育学院这三个组织。圣彼得堡的欧洲大学如今也因琐碎的技术违规而面临关闭——这是俄罗斯政府最喜欢的官僚策略了。

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