طرد آخر أشباح البلقان

لقد بات من المنتظر أن تشهد الأسابيع القليلة المقبلة، على نحو أو آخر، صدور القرار بشأن آخر القضايا الإقليمية المعلقة في منطقة البلقان، حيث انتهت حروب التسعينيات بتدخل حلف شمال الأطلنطي في البوسنة (1995) ثم في كوسوفو (1999).

ولكن حتى بعد حلول السلام هناك ظلت مشاكل كبرى معلقة. فقد تم تقسيم البوسنة بين اتحاد فيدرالي مؤلف من المسلمين والكروات، وجمهورية صربية، في ظل حكومة مركزية تتمتع بسلطات وصلاحيات ضئيلة، والحاجة إلى تواجد قوة دولية عسكرية ـ ثم مدنية في النهاية ـ ضخمة للحفاظ على تماسك الحكومة. أما كوسوفو فقد اعتبرت منطقة واقعة تحت حماية الأمم المتحدة ولم يتم الفصل في "وضعها النهائي".

والآن عادت هذه القضايا المعلقة إلى البروز من جديد: فبتحريض من حكومة صربيا، تفكر قيادات صرب البوسنة في الانفصال، بينما تحاول القيادات المسلمة تعزيز سيطرتها المركزية. ويطالب ألبان كوسوفو بالاستقلال، بينما تحاول صربيا تأجيل القرار باعتراض سبيل أي تحرك من جانب مجلس الأمن.

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