疲惫不堪的意大利

意大利面临着或许是自1948年以来最为重要的选举。当时,人们通过选举在墨索里尼法西斯政权的废墟上成立了新的意大利共和国。4月9日到10日,意大利人必须在现任总理贝鲁斯卡尼领导的中间偏右政府和以普罗迪为首的中间偏左政党中做出选择。但是这两个人好像都不是那种能够带领意大利走出令人沮丧的经济困境的决定性人物。

意大利的经济萎靡不振显而易见。过去的五年中,经济累积增长速度是欧元区中最缓慢的,只有3.2%,而欧元区平均增长速度达到了7.8%,其中两年处于停滞状态。人均国民生产总值也下降到欧元区平均水平之下。虽然就业率有所提高,但劳动生产率仍然毫无起色,生产要素总生产率不升反降。雪上加霜的是实际汇率提升,导致竞争力大幅下降,出口受到重创。实际上,唯一增长的部分好像只剩下有关意大利经济衰退的书籍了。

贝鲁斯科尼宣称这些数字并不可靠,因为它们掩盖了当今富裕的意大利人的实际情况。现政府的其他成员则审慎地承认意大利确实面临严重的问题,但他们将之归结于那些超出他们控制范围的因素,也就使一系列的全球经济动荡、欧洲大陆经济不景气、中国加入世贸组织以及欧元的作用。

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