A crise bem-vinda na teoria evolucionista

EXETER - Aqueles que acreditam que um ser sobrenatural criou o universo nunca constituíram um desafio intelectual à teoria evolucionista. Mas os criacionistas, quer sejam fundamentalistas bíblicos ou crentes no “design inteligente”, representam uma ameaça ao pensamento científico. Na verdade, o talento especial traiçoeiro do criacionismo reside na sua capacidade de reinventar a evolução à sua própria imagem, como um sistema de crenças dogmáticas - e, portanto, a antítese da ciência.

Os criacionistas estão certos numa coisa: ao contrário da impressão que é dada em muito o que se escreve sobre o assunto, a teoria da evolução está em crise. Mas isto é um desenvolvimento positivo, pois reflecte o progresso não-linear do conhecimento científico, caracterizado por aquilo que Thomas Kuhn descreveu no seu influente livro The Structure of Scientific Revolutions como “mudanças de paradigma”.

Durante os últimos 70 anos, o paradigma dominante na ciência evolucionista tem sido a chamada “nova síntese”. Amplamente divulgada nos últimos anos pelo biólogo evolucionista de Oxford, Richard Dawkins, a nova síntese combina a teoria de Darwin da selecção natural com a genética mendeliana, o que explica a hereditariedade.

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