Die willkommene Krise der Evolutionstheorie

EXETER – Diejenigen, die glauben, das Universum sei von einem übernatürlichen Wesen geschaffen worden, konnten der Evolutionstheorie intellektuell nie das Wasser reichen. Aber die Kreationisten, ob biblische Fundamentalisten oder Anhänger des “intelligenten Design”, stellen eine Bedrohung für das wissenschaftliche Denken dar. Tatsächlich liegt die tückische Genialität des Kreationismus in seiner Fähigkeit, das Konzept der Evolution als dogmatisches Glaubenssystem neu zu erfinden – was das genaue Gegenteil von Wissenschaft ist.

In einem Punkt haben die Kreationisten recht: Ungeachtet des Eindrucks, den die vielen populärwissenschaftlichen Veröffentlichungen zum Thema hinterlassen, befindet sich die Evolutionstheorie in einer Krise. Aber dies ist eine positive Entwicklung, da sie den nichtlinearen Fortschritt wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnis widerspiegelt, der durch das gekennzeichnet wird, was Thomas Kuhn in seinem einflussreichen Buch Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen als “Paradigmenwechsel” beschreibt.

In den letzten 70 Jahren war das dominante Paradigma in der Evolutionswissenschaft die sogenannte “Neue Synthese”.. Sie wurde in den vergangenen Jahren durch den Evolutionsbiologen Richard Dawkins weit verbreitet und vereint Darwins Theorie der natürlichen Auslese mit der Genetik Mendels, die die Vererbung erklärt.

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