值得欢迎的进化论危机

艾克赛特—那些相信宇宙由超自然生物所创的人从未对进化论构成过智识上的威胁。但是,神创论者,不论他是圣经原教旨主义者还是“智能设计”信徒,确实构成了对科学思维的威胁。事实上,神创论的阴鸷之处在于它可以重新阐释进化论,将它嵌入自身的教条主义信仰体系(因此也是科学的对立面)中。

神创论者有一点是正确的:与该问题的流行观点给人的印象相反,进化论正处于危机之中。但这是积极的发展态势,因为这反映了科学知识的非线性进步,托马斯·库恩在其名著《科学革命的结构》(The Structure of Scientific Revolutions)中将其称为“范式变迁”。

在过去70年中,进化论科学的主流范式是所谓的“新综合”(new synthesis)。牛津大学进化生物学家理查德·道金斯(Richard Dawkins)近年来做了大量推广新综合范式的工作。新综合范式将他的自然选择理论与孟德尔遗传理论结合了起来。

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