British and EU flags flying Ye Pingfan/ Xinhua via Zuma Wire

Более тесный союз или только общий рынок?

БЕРЛИН – На предстоящем референдуме в Великобритании по вопросу о сохранении членства страны в Евросоюзе будет решаться судьба самой природы ЕС. Британия хочет другого типа Европы, совсем не того, каким сейчас является ЕС. Выбор Британии – это Европа, которая, по сути, состоит исключительно из общего рынка. Несмотря на то, что Великобритания уже давно получила право не входить в еврозону и во многие другие совместные проекты (и, следовательно, не обязана никаким образом участвовать в процессе углубления политического союза в Европе), именно в этом заключается идеологическая суть противоречий.

Этот вопрос выходит за рамки дебатов о Брексите. Растущая сила евроскептиков во многих странах ЕС сделала актуальной ту же самую проблему и на континенте, где многие полагают, что стремление к политическому союзу избыточно для граждан стран ЕС и от него следует отказаться.

Как и британцы, многие континентальные европейцы задаются вопросом, а действительно ли так необходимо транснациональное регулирование со стороны учреждений, базирующихся в Брюсселе, а также политический союз. Не будет ли достаточно более вольной ассоциации суверенных национальных государств, объединяемых экономическими интересами – континентальным общим рынком (британская модель)? Зачем тратить время на всю эту запутанную интеграцию – Шенгенское соглашение, валютный союз, общеевропейское регулирование, – если в итоге она не работает так, как следует, но при этом ослабляет глобальную конкурентоспособность стран-членов ЕС?

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