British and EU flags flying Ye Pingfan/ Xinhua via Zuma Wire

Vers une union toujours plus étroite ou vers un marché commun ?

BERLIN – L'essence même de l'Union européenne va se jouer lors du prochain référendum du Royaume-Uni, où ce pays va se poser la question de rester ou non un membre de cette Union. Le Royaume-Uni veut une Europe différente de celle que l'UE représente actuellement. Dans les grandes lignes, sa préférence va plutôt à une Europe constituée uniquement d'un marché commun. Même si la Grande-Bretagne a longtemps été en mesure de se retirer de l'euro et de nombreux autres aspects de l'Union (et n'est donc pas forcée en quelque sorte de participer au processus d'approfondissement de l'union politique de l'Europe), ce problème constitue l'essence idéologique de la controverse.

C'est une question qui dépasse largement le débat sur le « Brexit » du Royaume-Uni. La montée en puissance des forces eurosceptiques dans nombreux États membres de l'UE a soulevé la même question sur le continent, où de nombreuses personnes pensent que l'objectif d'une union politique risque de surcharger les citoyens des États membres et doit être abandonnée.

Comme les Britanniques, de nombreux Européens continentaux se demandent si une réglementation transnationale par les institutions de Bruxelles et une union politique sont réellement nécessaires. Une association libre d'États-nations souverains, partageant le noyau dur économique d'un marché commun continental (comme le modèle britannique), n'est-elle pas suffisante ? Pourquoi s'embêter avec cette intégration complexe qui implique l'accord de Schengen, avec une union monétaire et des réglementations européennes qui en fin de compte ne fonctionnent pas correctement et qui affaiblissent la compétitivité globale des États membres ?

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